The Treaty of Verdun divided the empire that Charlemagne had built in three parts that were to be governed by his three surviving grandchildren. It is important because it marked not only the beginning of the dissolution of the Empire, but also the general limits of what the various nation states of Europe were to become. Map of Internet Medieval Source Book. Das Sourcebook is a collection of texts from the public domain and copy that refer to medieval and Byzantine history. The original e-text is (c) Paul Halsall August 1996 [email protected] Each of the three brothers has already been founded in a kingdom: Lothair in the Kingdom of Italy; Ludwig the German in the Kingdom of Bavaria; and Charlemagne, in the kingdom of Aquitaine. The mighty Carolingian empire, with its great history of skilled rulers, was divided by the Treaty of Verdun. The ascent was started by Pepin de Herstal and his son Charles Martel. His family took power during the fall of the Merovingian dynasty. During this period, Pepin de Herstal, Charles Martel, and his grandson Pepin the Brief became the most powerful men of the Franconian state.
In 751 AD, Pepin the Brief got rid of the reigning Merovingian king and became king of the Franks. He also received a special ointment from the pope. The greatest emperor, however, was Charlemagne. Charlemagne was the emperor of the Roman Empire. With Charlemagne`s death, his son Louis the Pious inherited the throne. Ludwig the German ruled the kingdom of eastern France. When he died, he divided his kingdom to his sons. Lotharingia was the least stable of the three kingdoms divided by the Treaty of Verdun.
He was also divided between Lothair`s three sons, who fought against each other and eventually ruined him. The kingdom of western France was harassed by the Vikings who devastated their country. There have also been management problems in the province of Aquitaine. Yet Karl the Kahle remained under control. After its death the realm of the Westfranken became its son Louis II. R. E. Sullivan, D.
Sherman, J.B. Harrison, A Short History of Western Civilization, Eighth Edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1994. After Charlemagne`s death, Louis became the ruler of the Carolingian empire. During his reign he di guessed the kingdom, so that each of his sons could rule over their own kingdom under the greatest domination of their father. Lothair I received the title of emperor, but because of several re-divisions by his father and the resulting revolts, he became much less powerful. When Louis the Pious died in 840, his eldest son Lothair I claimed the domination of his father`s entire kingdom to regain the power he had as emperor at the beginning of his reign.  He also supported his nephew Pepin II`s claim to Aquitaine, a large province west of the Franconian Empire. Lothair`s brother, Ludwig the German, and his half-brother Karl the Kahle refused to recognize Lothairs Suzerainty and declared war on him.  After a bloody civil war, they defeated Lothair 841 at the Battle of Fontenay and sealed their alliance in 842 with the oath of Strasbourg, which declared Lothair unfit for the imperial throne, after which he was ready to negotiate a colony.